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Learn Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) with Toki Pona

Lession 8

In this lesson we add rules for the Toki Pona lesson Questions using "seme". With "seme" you can build the most type of questions in Toki Pona.

question                 --> question_yes_no. 
question                 --> question_what_subject.
question                 --> question_what_object_d. 
question                 --> question_what_object_i. 
question                 --> question_what_object_p.
question                 --> question_what_verb.                                                                                 
question                 --> question_where.
question                 --> question_wherefrom.
question                 --> question_who.
question                 --> question_whom.
question                 --> question_which_subject.
question                 --> question_which_object_d.
question                 --> question_which_object_i.
question                 --> question_which_object_p.
question                 --> question_why.

Very easy is the DCG rule for what-subject-questions. Instead of a noun phrase we use "seme".

question_what_subject    --> question_word(seme),                         separator(li),                    verb_phrases.

More complicated are what-object-questions because Toki Pona has three types of object: direct, intranstive and prepositional objects. We take the rules for "verb_phrases" and use "seme" instead of the object. To distinguish between what-question for prepositional objects and where-questions we ban the preposition "lon". To distinguish between what-question for prepositional objects and why-/wherefrom-questions we ban the preposition "tan" ( {P\=lon,P\=tan} ) .

question_what_object_d   --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_transitive_compound,                                 separator(e),                     question_word(seme).
question_what_object_i   --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_intransitive_compound,                                                                 question_word(seme).
question_what_object_p   --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_transitive_compound,                                 preposition(P), {P\=lon,P\=tan},  question_word(seme). % lon is for where-questions. tan is for why- and wherefrom-questions.

Now we build the rules for what-verb-questions.

question_what_verb       --> noun_phrase,  question_word(seme),           direct_objects.   
question_what_verb       --> noun_phrase,  question_word(seme),           intrans_objects. 
question_what_verb       --> noun_phrase,  question_word(seme),           prepositional_objects.

For the next type of questions we need new rules ("subject"). We can't use the rules "noun_phrase" because the separator "li" disturbs.

subject                  --> pronoun_compound.
subject                  --> noun_compound.

In Toki Pona where-questions need the preposition "lon". Where-from-questions need the verb "kama" and the preposition "tan".

question_where           --> noun_phrase,                                 preposition(lon),                                                                           question_word(seme).
question_wherefrom       --> noun_phrase,   verb_transitive(kama),        preposition(tan),                               noun_compound,                              question_word(seme).

Who-question are build with "jan", "meli" or mije" before "seme".

question_who             --> noun(jan),            question_word(seme),   separator(li),                      verb_phrases.
question_who             --> noun(meli),           question_word(seme),   separator(li),                      verb_phrases.
question_who             --> noun(mije),           question_word(seme),   separator(li),                      verb_phrases.

Whom-question are build with "jan", "meli" or mije" before "seme" too. But here is "seme" the last word in the question.

question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          separator(e),      noun(jan),       adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          separator(e),      noun(meli),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          separator(e),      noun(mije),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          preposition(_),    noun(jan),       adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          preposition(_),    noun(meli),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          preposition(_),    noun(mije),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).

The rules for which-subject-questions are easy.

question_which_subject   --> subject, question_word(seme),                separator(li),                      verb_phrases.

The rules for which-object-questions are little complicated. Please compare these rules with the rules for what-object-questions.

question_which_object_d  --> noun_phrase,     verb_transitive_compound,   separator(e),                     noun(N), {N\=jan,N\=meli,N\=mije,N\=tan}, adjectives, question_word(seme).
question_which_object_i  --> noun_phrase,     verb_intransitive_compound,                                   noun(N), {N\=jan,N\=meli,N\=mije,N\=tan}, adjectives, question_word(seme).
question_which_object_p  --> noun_phrase,     verb_transitive_compound,   preposition(P), {P\=lon,P\=tan},  noun(N), {N\=jan,N\=meli,N\=mije,N\=tan}, adjectives, question_word(seme).

The rules for why-question are simple. We need the noun "tan" before "seme".

question_why             --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases, noun(tan),    question_word(seme).

Here the source code of toki-pona-08.pro.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Learn Definite Clause Grammars with toki pona
% toki pona - Lession 08 - Questions using "seme"
% by Robert Warnke http://rowa.giso.de
% released under the GNU General Public License 
%
% ['toki-pona-08.pro'].
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Grammar  
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% sentence types:

sentence                 --> sentence_declarative,                                                       separator('.').   % A declarative sentence states a fact or an argument and ends with a full stop.
sentence                 --> sentence_exclamatory,                                                       separator('!').   % An exclamatory sentence makes also conveys excitement and ends with an exclamation mark.
sentence                 --> sentence_imperative,                                     (separator('!') ;  separator('.')).  % An imperative sentence (command) can ends with an exclamation mark or a full stop.
sentence                 --> sentence_interrogative,                                                     separator('?').   % An interrogative sentence (questions) always ends in a question mark.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% definitions of the sentence types:

sentence_declarative     -->             sentence_simple.                                                                  % A declarative sentence can be an simple sentence. 
sentence_declarative     -->             sentence_simple,   separator(':'),              sentence_simple.                  % A declarative sentence can build of two simple sentences separated by a colon (sentence_hint).
sentence_declarative     --> answer_yes.                                                                                   % A declarative sentence can be a yes answer.
sentence_declarative     --> answer_no.                                                                                    % A declarative sentence can be a no answer.
sentence_declarative     --> vocativ.                                                                                      % A declarative sentence can be a vocativ sentence (addressing people).
sentence_declarative     --> salutation.                                                                                   % A declarative sentence can be a salutation.
sentence_declarative     --> interjection.                                                                                 % A declarative sentence can be an interjection.
sentence_declarative     --> vocativ_interjection.                                                                         % A declarative sentence can be an interjection and vocativ sentence.
sentence_declarative     --> designate.                                                                                    % Special sentence for designate, for example: nimi mi li Lope.

sentence_exclamatory     --> sentence_declarative.                                                                         % A exclamatory sentence can has the same structure as an declarative sentence.

sentence_imperative      --> imperative.                                                                                   % An imperative sentence (command).
sentence_imperative      --> vocativ_imperative.                                                                           % An imperative sentence (command) can be a vocativ imperativ.

sentence_interrogative   --> question.                                                                                     % An interrogative sentence (question) can be a question.
sentence_interrogative   --> vocativ_question.                                                                             % An interrogative sentence (question) can be a vocativ question.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% special sentences:

sentence_simple          --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases.                                                           % A simple sentence consist of a noun phrase and verb phrases. 

answer_yes               -->                       verb_transitive(_).
answer_yes               --> verb_pre(Vp),         verb_transitive(V), {V\=Vp}.
answer_yes               --> verb_pre(_).

answer_no                -->                                                 noun(ala).
answer_no                -->                       verb_transitive(_),       adverb(ala).
answer_no                --> verb_pre(Vp),                                   adverb(ala),  verb_transitive(V), {V\=Vp}.
answer_no                --> verb_pre(_),                                    adverb(ala).

vocativ                  --> subject,                                        separator(o).
vocativ                  --> subject,                                        separator(o), separator(','), noun_phrase, verb_phrases.
vocativ_interjection     --> subject,                                        separator(o), separator(','),              verb_phrases.

interjection             --> interjection_word(_).
interjection             --> interjection_word(a), interjection_word(a),     interjection_word(a).                                       % "a a a." laughing
interjection             --> noun_compound_person,                           separator(o), interjection_word(a).                         % Addressing people really emotional.
interjection             -->              sentence_simple,                                                   interjection_word(a).       % A interjection sentence can build of a simple sentence and an "a"..
interjection             -->              sentence_simple,   separator(':'),  sentence_simple,               interjection_word(a).       % A interjection sentence can build of two simple sentences separated by a colon and followed by an "a".

salutation               --> noun(suno),                    adjectiv(pona).                                                              % Salutation: Good day!
salutation               --> noun(lape),                    adjectiv(pona).                                                              % Salutation: Sleep well!
salutation               --> noun(moku),                    adjectiv(pona).                                                              % Salutation: Enjoy your meal!
salutation               --> noun(tawa),                    adjectiv(pona).                                                              % Salutation: Good bye!
salutation               --> noun(kama),                    adjectiv(pona).                                                              % Salutation: Welcome!
salutation               --> noun(musi),                    adjectiv(pona).                                                              % Salutation: Have fun!
salutation               --> pronoun(mi),                   adjectiv(tawa).                                                              % Salutation: Good bye! (I go)   
salutation               --> pronoun(mi), adjectiv(mute),   adjectiv(tawa).                                                              % Salutation: Good bye! (we go) 

imperative               -->                                                 separator(o),                   verb_phrases.               % An imperative starts with an "o" as a noun phrase.
vocativ_imperative       --> pronoun_compound,                               separator(o),                   verb_phrases.               % An vocative imperative sentence has an "o" instead of a "li".
vocativ_imperative       --> noun_compound,                                  separator(o),                   verb_phrases.

designate                --> noun(nimi),                                                pronoun(_), separator(li), female_prominent_personage(_).  % Normally unofficial word need a noun before because there are adjectives.
designate                --> noun(nimi),                                                pronoun(_), separator(li), male_prominent_personage(_).    % But in Toki Pona is no word for "be" and adjectives can be after "li".
designate                --> noun(nimi),                                                pronoun(_), separator(li), female_name(_).
designate                --> noun(nimi),                                                pronoun(_), separator(li), male_name(_).

vocativ_question         --> noun_compound,                              separator(o), separator(','), question.                         % Addressing and asking.    

question                 --> question_yes_no.                                                                                            % A question can be a yes/no question.
question                 --> question_pardon.                                                                                            % Pardon? = seme?
question                 --> question_what_subject.
question                 --> question_what_object_d.                                                                                     % What direct object
question                 --> question_what_object_i.                                                                                     % What intransitives object
question                 --> question_what_object_p.                                                                                     % What prepositional object
question                 --> question_what_verb.                                                                                 
question                 --> question_where.
question                 --> question_wherefrom.
question                 --> question_who.
question                 --> question_whom.
question                 --> question_which_subject.
question                 --> question_which_object_d.
question                 --> question_which_object_i.
question                 --> question_which_object_p.
question                 --> question_why.
% question                 --> question_how.
% question                 --> question_or_what.                                                                                           % ... anu seme? - Not a real question. It is more an imperativ.
% question                 --> question_how_many.

question_yes_no          --> noun_phrase, question_yn_verb_phrase.                                                                       % A Yes/No questions consist of a noun phrase and a special verb phrase.

question_pardon          --> question_word(seme).

question_what_subject    --> question_word(seme),                         separator(li),                    verb_phrases.
question_what_object_d   --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_transitive_compound,                                 separator(e),                     question_word(seme).
question_what_object_i   --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_intransitive_compound,                                                                 question_word(seme).
question_what_object_p   --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_transitive_compound,                                 preposition(P), {P\=lon,P\=tan},  question_word(seme). % lon is for where-questions. tan is for why- and wherefrom-questions.

question_what_verb       --> noun_phrase,  question_word(seme),           direct_objects.                                                % Is seme a transitive verb?
question_what_verb       --> noun_phrase,  question_word(seme),           intrans_objects.                                               % Is seme a intransitive verb?
question_what_verb       --> noun_phrase,  question_word(seme),           prepositional_objects.

question_where           --> noun_phrase,                                 preposition(lon),                                                                           question_word(seme).

question_wherefrom       --> noun_phrase,   verb_transitive(kama),        preposition(tan),                               noun_compound,                              question_word(seme).

question_who             --> noun(jan),            question_word(seme),   separator(li),                      verb_phrases.
question_who             --> noun(meli),           question_word(seme),   separator(li),                      verb_phrases.
question_who             --> noun(mije),           question_word(seme),   separator(li),                      verb_phrases.

question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          separator(e),      noun(jan),       adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          separator(e),      noun(meli),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          separator(e),      noun(mije),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          preposition(_),    noun(jan),       adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          preposition(_),    noun(meli),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).
question_whom            --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases,          preposition(_),    noun(mije),      adjectives,     question_word(seme).

question_which_subject   --> subject, question_word(seme),                separator(li),                      verb_phrases.

question_which_object_d  --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_transitive_compound,                                 separator(e),                     noun(N), {N\=jan,N\=meli,N\=mije,N\=tan}, adjectives, question_word(seme).
question_which_object_i  --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_intransitive_compound,                                                                 noun(N), {N\=jan,N\=meli,N\=mije,N\=tan}, adjectives, question_word(seme).
question_which_object_p  --> noun_phrase,                                 verb_transitive_compound,                                 preposition(P), {P\=lon,P\=tan},  noun(N), {N\=jan,N\=meli,N\=mije,N\=tan}, adjectives, question_word(seme).

question_why             --> noun_phrase,          verb_phrases, noun(tan),    question_word(seme).

% question_how             --> % ... kepeken nasin seme?
% question_or_what         --> % ... anu seme? - more an imperativ than a question
% question_how_many        --> % tenpo pi mute seme la sina sike e suno?                % How old are you?


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%  phrases:

subject                  --> pronoun_compound.
subject                  --> noun_compound.

noun_phrase              --> pronoun_no_li.
noun_phrase              --> pronoun_with_li,                                  separator(li).
noun_phrase              --> noun_compound,                                    separator(li).

verb_phrases             --> verb_phrase,         verb_phrase_add.
verb_phrase              --> verb_transitive_compound,                                       direct_objects,   prepositional_objects.
verb_phrase              --> verb_intransitive_compound,                                     intrans_objects,  prepositional_objects.
verb_phrase              --> adjectiv(_),               adjectives.                                                                     % In toki pona is no verb "to be". 
verb_phrase              --> pronoun_compound.                                                                                          % In toki pona is no verb "to be".
verb_phrase              --> noun_compound.                                                                                             % In toki pona is no verb "to be". 
verb_phrase_add          --> [].
verb_phrase_add          --> separator(li),       verb_phrase,          verb_phrase_add.

question_yn_verb_phrase  -->                                                      verb_transitive(Verb),   adverb(ala), verb_transitive(Verb),   direct_objects,  prepositional_objects.
question_yn_verb_phrase  --> verb_pre(Verb_pre), adverb(ala), verb_pre(Verb_pre), verb_transitive(Verb), { Verb \= Verb_pre },                   direct_objects,  prepositional_objects.
question_yn_verb_phrase  --> verb_pre(Verb_pre), adverb(ala), verb_pre(Verb_pre),                                                                direct_objects,  prepositional_objects.
question_yn_verb_phrase  -->                                                      verb_intransitive(Verb), adverb(ala), verb_intransitive(Verb), intrans_objects, prepositional_objects.
question_yn_verb_phrase  --> verb_pre(Verb_pre), adverb(ala), verb_pre(Verb_pre), verb_intransitive(Verb), { Verb \= Verb_pre },                 intrans_objects, prepositional_objects.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% objects:

direct_objects           --> [].                                                                                                        % no direct object
direct_objects           --> direct_object,       direct_objects.   
direct_object            --> separator(e),        noun_compound.
direct_object            --> separator(e),        pronoun_compound.

intrans_objects         --> [].      
intrans_objects         --> intrans_object.
intrans_object          --> noun_compound.                  
intrans_object          --> pronoun_compound.                  

prepositional_objects   --> [].                       
prepositional_objects   --> prepositional_object, prepositional_objects.
prepositional_object    --> comma_optional,       preposition(_),       noun_compound.
prepositional_object    --> comma_optional,       preposition(_),       pronoun_compound. 


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% pronouns:

pronoun_optional        --> [].
pronoun_optional        --> pronoun(_).

pronoun_no_li           --> pronoun(mi).                                                                                             % "mi" or "sina" need no "li".
pronoun_no_li           --> pronoun(sina).                                                                                           % "mi" or "sina" need no "li".
pronoun_with_li         --> pronoun(P), {P\=mi,P\=sina}.                                                                             % These pronouns need a "li".
pronoun_with_li         --> pronoun(_),                               adjectiv(mute).                                                % These compund pronouns need a "li".
pronoun_compound        --> pronoun(_),                               adjectives.                                                    % All (compound) pronouns.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% nouns:

noun_compound           --> noun_compound_geography.                                                                                    % The special rules have to be before the general rules.
noun_compound           --> noun_compound_language.
noun_compound           --> noun_compound_ideology.
noun_compound           --> noun_compound_person.
noun_compound           --> noun(_),                      adjectives.                                                                   % A compound noun can be build with a noun and optional adjectives.

noun_compound_geography --> noun(ma),                     continent(_),                     adjectives.
noun_compound_geography --> noun(ma),    adjectiv(suli),  continent(_),                     adjectives.
noun_compound_geography --> noun(ma),                     country(_),                       adjectives.
noun_compound_geography --> noun(ma),    adjectiv(tomo),  city(_),                          adjectives.
noun_compound_language  --> noun(toki),                   language(_),                      adjectives.
noun_compound_language  --> noun(toki),  adjectiv(luka),  sign_language(_),                 adjectives.                                 % sign language (luka = hand)
noun_compound_ideology  --> noun(nasin), adjectiv(sewi),  ideology(_),                      adjectives.
noun_compound_ideology  --> noun(nasin), adjectiv(pona),  ideology(_),                      adjectives.
% noun_compound         --> noun(kulupu),                 community(_),                     adjectives.                                 % In later lessions.      

noun_compound_person    --> noun(jan),                    resident(_),                      adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(jan),                    female_prominent_personage(_),    adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(jan),                    male_prominent_personage(_),      adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(jan),                    female_name(_),                   adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(jan),                    male_name(_),                     adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(meli),                   resident(_),                      adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(meli),                   female_prominent_personage(_),    adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(meli),                   female_name(_),                   adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(mije),                   resident(_),                      adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(mije),                   male_prominent_personage(_),      adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(mije),                   male_name(_),                     adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(jan),                                                      adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(meli),                                                     adjectives.
noun_compound_person    --> noun(mije),                                                     adjectives.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% verbs:

verb_transitive_compound   --> verb_pre_optional,   adverbs,   verb_transitive(_),      adverbs.

verb_intransitive_compound --> verb_pre_optional,   adverbs,   verb_intransitive(_),    adverbs.

verb_pre_optional          --> [].
verb_pre_optional          --> verb_pre(_).

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% adjectives:

adjectives              --> adjectives_pure,     pronoun_optional.

adjectives_pure         --> [].                                                                                                        % no adjectiv
adjectives_pure         --> adjectiv(_).                                                                                               % only one adjectiv
adjectives_pure         --> adjectiv(A), adjectiv(B),                           {A\=B}.                                                % two adjectives
adjectives_pure         --> adjectiv(A), adjectiv(B), adjectiv(C),              {A\=B,A\=C,B\=C}.              


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% adverbs:

adverbs                  --> [].                                                                                                         % no adverb
adverbs                  --> adverb(_).                                                                                                  % only one adverb
adverbs                  --> adverb(A),    adverb(B),                { A\=B } .                                                          % several adverbs
adverbs                  --> adverb(A),    adverb(B),   adverb(C),   { A\=B, A\=C , B\=C} .                                              % max. 3 different adverbs


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% miscellaneous:

comma_optional         --> [].
comma_optional         --> separator(',').


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Official Words 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

adjectiv(Adjectiv) --> [Adjectiv], { member(Adjectiv, [     
     ala,          % no, not, none, un- 
     ale,          % all, every, complete, whole  (ale = ali)
     ali,          % all, every, complete, whole  (ale = ali)
     awen,         % remaining, stationary, permanent, sedentary
     anpa,         % low, lower, bottom, down
     ijo,          % of something
     ike,          % bad, negative, wrong, evil, overly complex, (figuratively) unhealthy
     insa,         % inner, internal
     jaki,         % dirty, gross, filthy
     jan,          % human, somebody's, personal, of people
     jo,           % private, personal
     kama,         % coming, future
     kili,         % fruity
     kiwen,        % hard, solid, stone-like, made of stone or metal
     kon,          % air-like, ethereal, gaseous
     lape,         % sleeping, of sleep, dormant
     lawa,         % main, leading, in charge
     len,          % dressed, clothed, costumed, dressed up 
     lili,         % small, little, young, a bit, short, few, less
     lukin,        % visual(ly)
     mama,         % of the parent, parental, maternal, fatherly
     meli,         % female, feminine, womanly
     mije,         % male, masculine, manly
     moku,         % eating
     monsi,        % back, rear
     musi,         % artful, fun, recreational
     mute,         % many, very, much, several, a lot, abundant, numerous, more
     nasa,         % silly, crazy, foolish, drunk, strange, stupid, weird
     olin,         % love
     pakala,       % destroyed, ruined, demolished, shattered, wrecked
     pali,         % active, work-related, operating, working
     pana,         % generous
     poka,         % neighbouring
     pona,         % good, simple, positive, nice, correct, right
     sama,         % same, similar, equal, of equal status or position
     seli,         % hot, warm, cooked
     sewi,         % superior, elevated, religious, formal
     suwi,         % sweet, cute
     sin,          % new, fresh, another, more
     suli,         % big, tall, long, adult, important
     sona,         % knowing, cognizant, shrewd
     suno,         % sunny, sunnily
     supa,         % flat, shallow, flat-bottomed
     tan,          % causal, 
     tawa,         % moving, mobile
     telo,         % wett, slobbery, moist, damp, humid, sticky, sweaty, dewy, drizzly
     toki,         % speaking, eloquent, linguistic, verbal, grammatical
     tomo,         % urban, domestic, household
     unpa,         % erotic, sexual
     utala,        % fighting
     wawa         % energetic, strong, fierce, intense, sure, confident
%     wile          % necessary
 ])
}.

adverb(Adverb) --> [Adverb], { member(Adverb, [
     ala,           % don't
     ale,           % always, forever, evermore, eternally (ale = ali)
     ali,           % always, forever, evermore, eternally (ale = ali)
     awen,          % still, yet
     ijo,           % of something
     ike,           % bad, negative, wrong, evil, overly complex, (figuratively) unhealthy
     jaki,          % dirty, gross, filthy
     jan,           % human, somebody's, personal, of people
     kama,          % coming, future
     kili,          % fruity
     kiwen,         % hard, solid, stone-like, made of stone or metal
     kon,           % air-like, ethereal, gaseous
     lape,          % asleep
     lawa,          % main, leading, in charge
     lili,          % small, little, young, a bit, short, few, less
     lukin,         % visual(ly)
     moku,          % eating
     musi,          % cheerfully
     mute,          % many, very, much, several, a lot, abundant, numerous, more
     nasa,          % silly, crazy, foolish, drunk, strange, stupid, weird
     pakala,        % destroyed, ruined, demolished, shattered, wrecked
     pali,          % actively, briskly
     pona,          % good, simple, positive, nice, correct, right
     sama,          % just as, equally, exactly the same, just the same, similarly
     seli,          % hot, warm, cooked
     sewi,          % superior, elevated, religious, formal
     suli,          % big, tall, long, adult, important
     sona,          % knowingly, deliberately, intentionally
     suno,          % sunny, sunnily
     tawa,          % moving, mobile
     telo,          % wett, slobbery, moist, damp, humid, sticky, sweaty, dewy, drizzly
     toki,          % speaking, eloquent, linguistic, verbal, grammatical
     tomo,          % urban, domestic, household
     unpa,          % erotic, sexual
     utala,         % fighting
     wawa          % strongly, powerfully
%     wile           % necessary
 ])
}.

interjection_word(Interjection_word) --> [Interjection_word], { member(Interjection_word, [
     a,            % ah, ha, uh, oh, ooh, aw, well (emotion word)
     ala,          % no!
     ike,          % oh dear! woe! alas!
     jaki,         % ew! yuck!
     mu,           % woof! meow! moo! etc. (cute animal noise)
     o,            % hey! (calling somebody's attention)
     pakala,       % damn! fuck!
     pona,         % great! good! thanks! OK! cool! yay!
     toki          % hello, hi, good morning,
 ])
}.

noun(Noun) --> [Noun], { member(Noun, [   
     ala,          % nothing, negation, zero
     ale,          % everything, anything, life, the universe
     ali,          % everything, anything, life, the universe
     anpa,         % bottom, lower part, under, below, floor, beneath
     awen,         % inertia, continuity, continuum, stay
     ijo,          % thing, something, stuff, anything, object
     ike,          % negativity, badness, evil
     ilo,          % tool, device, machine, thing used for a specific purpose
     insa,         % inside, inner world, centre, stomach
     jaki,         % dirt, pollution, garbage, filth
     jan,          % person, people, human, being, somebody, anybody
     jo,           % having
     kama,         % event, happening, chance, arrival, beginning
     ken,          % possibility, ability, power to do things, permission
     kili,         % fruit, pulpy vegetable, mushroom
     kiwen,        % hard thing, rock, stone, metal, mineral, clay
     kon,          % air, wind, smell, soul
     lape,         % sleep, rest
     lawa,         % head, mind
     len,          % clothing, cloth, fabric
     lili,         % smallness, youth, immaturity
     lukin,        % view, look, glance, sight, gaze, glimpse, seeing, vision, sight 
     ma,           % land, earth, country, (outdoor) area
     mama,         % parent, mother, father
     meli,         % woman, female, girl, wife, girlfriend
     mije,         % man, male, husband, boyfriend
     moku,         % food, meal
     monsi,        % back, rear end, butt, behind
     musi,         % fun, playing, game, recreation, art, entertainment
     mute,         % amount, quantity
     nasa,         % stupidity, foolishness, silliness, nonsense, idiocy, inanity, obtuseness, ninny, muddler
     nimi,         % word, name
     olin,         % love
     pakala,       % blunder, accident, mistake, destruction, damage, breaking
     pali,         % activity, work, deed, project
     pana,         % giving, transfer, exchange
     pipi,         % bug, insect, spider
     poka,         % side, hip, next to
     poki,         % container, box, bowl, cup, glass
     pona,         % good, simplicity, positivity
     sama,         % equality, parity, equity, identity, par, sameness
     seli,         % fire, warmth, heat
     sewi,         % high, up, above, top, over, on
     sona,         % knowledge, wisdom, intelligence, understanding
     suli,         % size
     suno,         % sun, light
     supa,         % horizontal surface, e.g furniture, table, chair, pillow, floor
     suwi,         % candy, sweet food
     tan,          % origin, cause
     tawa,         % movement, transportation
     telo,         % water, liquid, juice, sauce
     toki,         % language, speech, tongue, lingo, jargon, 
     tomo,         % indoor constructed space, e.g. house, home, room, building
     unpa,         % sex, sexuality
     utala,        % conflict, disharmony, competition, fight, war, battle, attack, blow, argument, physical or verbal violence
     wawa          % energy, strength, power
%     wile          % desire, need, will
 ])
}.

preposition(Preposition) --> [Preposition], { member(Preposition, [
     kepeken,     % with
     lon,         % be (located) in/at/on
     poka,        % in the accompaniment of, with
     sama,        % like, as, seem
     tan,         % from, by, because of, since
     tawa         % to, in order to, towards, for, until
 ])
}.

pronoun(Pronoun) --> [Pronoun], { member(Pronoun, [
     mi,          % I, we (pronoun 1. person)
     sina,        % you (pronoun 2. person)
     ona,         % she, he, it, they (pronoun 3. person)
     ni           % this, that (pronoun determiner)
 ])
}.

question_word(Question_word) --> [Question_word], { member(Question_word, [
	seme          % what, which, wh- (question word)
 ])
}.

separator(Separator) --> [Separator], { member(Separator, [
     e,             % introduces a direct object
     li,            % between any subject except mi and sina and its verb
     o,             % O (vocative or imperative)
     '.',           % At the end of a sentence.
     '!',           % At the end of an interjection.
     '?',           % At the end of a question.
     ':',           % Between an hint sentences and a sentences.
     ','            % comma
 ])
}.

verb_intransitive(Verb_intransitive) --> [Verb_intransitive], { member(Verb_intransitive, [
     awen,          % stay, wait,remain
     ike,           % to be bad, to suck
     kama,          % come, become, arrive, happen, pursue actions to arrive to (a certain state), manage to, start to
     ken,           % can, is able to, is allowed to, may, is possible
     kepeken,       % use
     lape,          % to sleep, to rest
     lon,           % be there, be present, be real/true, exist, be awake
     lukin,         % look, watch out, pay attention
     musi,          % play, have fun
     pakala,        % screw up, fall apart, break
     pali,          % act, work, function
     sewi,          % to get up 
     sona,          % know, understand
     tawa,          % go to, walk, travel, move, leave
     toki,          % talk, chat, communicate
     unpa           % have sex
 ])
}.

verb_transitive(Verb_transitive) --> [Verb_transitive], { member(Verb_transitive, [
     anpa,          % defeat, beat, vanquish, conquer
     awen,          % keep
     ijo,           % objectify
     ike,           % to make bad, to worsen, to have a negative effect upon
     jaki,          % pollute, dirty
     jan,           % personify, humanize, personalize
     jo,            % have, contain
     kama,          % bring about, summon
     ken,           % make possible, enable, allow, permit
     kiwen,         % to solidify, to harden, to petrify, to fossilize
%     lape,          % to sleep, to rest
     lawa,          % lead, control, rule, steer
     len,           % to wear, to be dressed, to dress
     lili,          % reduce, shorten, shrink, lessen
     lukin,         % see, look at, watch, read
     moku,          % eat, drink, swallow, ingest, consume
     musi,          % amuse, entertain
     mute,          % make many or much
     nasa,          % drive crazy, make weird
     nimi,          % to name
     olin,          % to love (a person) 
     pakala,        % screw up, fuck up, botch, ruin, break, hurt, injure, damage, spoil, ruin
     pali,          % do, make, build, create
     pana,          % give, put, send, place, release, emit, cause
     pona,          % improve, fix, repair, make good
     seli,          % heat, warm up, cook
     sewi,          % to lift
     sin,           % renew, renovate, freshen
     sona,          % know, understand, know how to
     suli,          % enlarge, lengthen
     suno,          % to light, to illumine
     suwi,          % sweeten
     tawa,          % move, displace
     telo,          % water, wash with water
     toki,          % speak, talk, say, pronounce, discourse
     unpa,          % have sex with, sleep with, fuck
     utala,         % hit, strike, attack, compete against
     wawa,          % strengthen, energize, empower
     wile           % (verb transitive) to want, need, wish, have to, must, will, should
 ])
}.

verb_pre(Verb_pre) --> [Verb_pre], { member(Verb_pre, [
     kama,          % to become, to mange to
     ken,           % can, may
     lukin,         % to seek to, try to
     sona,          % to know how to
     wile           % to want, need, wish, have to, must, will, should
 ])
}.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Unofficial Words
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

continent(X)            --> continent_catalog(X), !.                                                                                    % The "!" stop the search after find something in *_catalog.
:- ['unofficial_words_continent_catalog.pro'].                                                                                          % Load the file with the *_catalog of unofficial words
continent(X)               --> word_unofficial(X).                                                                                      % If the word not in the catalog check it spelling only.

country(X)              --> country_catalog(X), !. 
:- ['unofficial_words_country_catalog.pro'].
country(X)              --> word_unofficial(X). 

city(X)                 --> city_catalog(X), !.
:- ['unofficial_words_city_catalog.pro'].
city(X)                    --> word_unofficial(X).

language(X)             --> language_catalog(X), !.
:- ['unofficial_words_language_catalog.pro'].
language(X)                 --> word_unofficial(X) .

sign_language(X)        --> language(X).                                                                                                % sign_language = language

ideology(X)             --> ideology_catalog(X), !.
:- ['unofficial_words_ideology_catalog.pro'].
ideology(X)                 --> word_unofficial(X) .

% community(X)            --> community_catalog(X), !.                                                                                  % In later lessions.
% :- ['unofficial_words_community_catalog.pro'].
% community(X)             --> word_unofficial(X).

resident(X)             --> country(X).                                                                                                 % resident = country

female_prominent_personage(X)  --> female_prominent_personage_catalog(X), !.
:- ['unofficial_words_female_prominent_personage_catalog.pro'].

male_prominent_personage(X)    --> male_prominent_personage_catalog(X), !.
:- ['unofficial_words_male_prominent_personage_catalog.pro'].

female_name(X)          --> female_name_catalog(X), !.
:- ['unofficial_words_female_name_catalog.pro'].
female_name(X)              --> word_unofficial(X) .

male_name(X)            --> male_name_catalog(X), !.
:- ['unofficial_words_male_name_catalog.pro'].
male_name(X)              --> word_unofficial(X) .


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Unofficial Words - check spelling

word_unofficial(Word,[Word|T],T) :-                                                                % This pure prolog rule make it possible to use DCG for spell check.    
     atom_length(Word,L),                                                                          % Get the lenght of the unofficial word.
     (L > 1, L =< 15),                                                                             % An unofficial word can have 2 to 15 characters. 
     atom_chars(Word,CL),                                                                          % atom_chars() convert an Atom (Word) in a list of character codes (CL). 
     word_unofficial_list(CL,[]), !.                                                               % The cut operator (!) mean: Don't try more than one true solution. 

word_unofficial_list    --> syllable_first, syllables.

syllables               --> [].                                                                    % No syllable.
syllables               --> syllable, syllables.                                                   % One or more syllabes.

syllable                --> consonant_small(Cs),                                                   % Each syllable consists of a consonant plus a vowel, plus an optional "n".
                            vowel_small(Vs),    
                            { not(invalid_letter_combination(Cs,Vs)) },                            % pure prolog rule to check valid letter combinations.
                            optional_n.
                                 
syllable_first          --> consonant_capital(Cs),                                                 % The first syllable of a word does not need to beginn with a consonant.
                            vowel_small(Vs),    
                            { not(invalid_letter_combination(Cs,Vs)) }, 
                            optional_n.
syllable_first          --> vowel_capital(_),  consonant_small(_).                                 % The first syllable of a word does not need to beginn with a consonant.
syllable_first          --> vowel_capital(_),  consonant_small(_),  vowel_small(_), optional_n.

optional_n              --> [].
optional_n              --> consonant_small('n').

invalid_letter_combination('T','i').                                                               % The syllables ti and tin become "si" and "sin".
invalid_letter_combination('t','i').
invalid_letter_combination('W','o').                                                               % The consonant "w" cannot appear before "o" or "u".
invalid_letter_combination('w','o').
invalid_letter_combination('W','u').
invalid_letter_combination('w','u').
invalid_letter_combination('J','i').                                                               % The consonant "j" cannot appear before "i".
invalid_letter_combination('j','i').


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Letters
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Possible letters for unofficial words. The most frequently used letter is on the first position. 

consonant_capital(Consonant_capital) --> [Consonant_capital], { member(Consonant_capital, [ 'P', 'S', 'K', 'L', 'M', 'T', 'N', 'W', 'J' ])}.
consonant_small(Consonant_small)     --> [Consonant_small],   { member(Consonant_small,   [ 'p', 's', 'k', 'l', 'm', 't', 'n', 'w', 'j' ])}.
vowel_capital(Vowel_capital)         --> [Vowel_capital],     { member(Vowel_capital,     [ 'A', 'E', 'I', 'U', 'O' ])}.
vowel_small(Vowel_small)             --> [Vowel_small],       { member(Vowel_small,       [ 'a', 'e', 'i', 'u', 'o' ])}.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% For a user friendly input:
:- ['check_grammar.pro']. 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

/*
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
% Possible queries
% 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Sentences with right grammar:

seme li utala e sina?
seme li moku e kili?
seme li lon poka mi?
seme li lon tomo mi?
seme li pona tawa sina?
sina lukin e seme?
sina pakala e seme?
ona li jo e seme?
sina lon seme?
sina mute li lon seme?
ma Elopa li lon seme?
ma tomo Pelin li lon seme?
jan seme li moku?
jan seme li tawa poka sina?
meli seme li moku?
mije seme li moku?
sina lukin e jan seme?
sina lukin e meli seme?
sina lukin e tomo e mije seme?
sina toki tawa jan pona seme?
sina toki tawa mije tawa jan seme?
ona li pana e sona tawa meli seme?
ma seme li pona tawa sina?
ma seme li pona, tawa sina?
ma tomo seme li pona tawa sina?
ona li pakala e tomo seme?
ona li pakala e tomo pona seme?
sina kama, tan ma seme?
sina kama tan ma seme?
sina kama tan seme?
sina kama, tan seme?
sina moku e telo suli tan seme?
ona li jo ala jo e kili mute?
sina seme e ona?
mi seme?
ona li seme?
toki ni li seme?

jan lili sina li suwi.
telo kili ni li suwi.
mi wile e suwi!
jan sin li kama.
mi wile e suwi sin!
mi olin e sina.
mi olin e sina!
ni li pona tawa mi.


% Sentences with wrong grammar:

?- check_grammar.
|: mute seme?
false.

?- check_grammar.
|: ni li lili li suli tawa sina?
false.

?- check_grammar.
|: mi li lon seme?
false.

?- check_grammar.
|: mi tan seme?
false.

?- check_grammar.
|: mi li tan seme?
false.

?- check_grammar.
|: ma Elopa lon seme?
false.

?- check_grammar.
|: ma tomo Pelin lon seme?
false.

?- check_grammar.
|: mi li kama tan seme?
false.

*/


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This unofficial fan site by Robert Warnke is based on the official Toki Pona book and website: tokipona.org